高1:英文全訳演習について


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英文全訳演習について

入試問題・英文記事を扱います
全文を日本語にします
個別に指導します
もれなく添削付き
語・句・節の役割を明確にします
英語脳特有の論理展開を体験します
未知の文法はその場で説明します

以下の条件を満たしている人は
西村まで

・中学英語はクリアできている(と思う)
・国立・早慶の受験を考えている
・レヴェルの高い英文を読んでみたい・読めるようになりたい

現在、参加者2名
下の英文は指導中の京大2011の1番
The word 'history' has two senses: what happened in the past, and what we say in the present about what happened in the past. In the first sense, history as past events is imagined as a country stretched out 'behind' us which we could visit if only we had a time-travel machine. History as the surmises, interpretations and narratives constructed today is based on what those past events left for us -it survives in the form of documents, letters, diaries, ruins unearthed by the archaeologist, artifacts known or judged to be old. These are the residue of what has otherwise gone; historians study and arrange them, like pieces of an incomplete jigsaw puzzle, in order to fashion a coherent story. History, in the sense of past time, is accessible only through history in the sense of today's incomplete jigsaw puzzle; we can get at it in no other way.

第一パラグラフの解釈;暫定
The word 'history' has two senses: what happened in the past, and what we say in the present about what happened in the past. 「歴史」という言葉には2つの意味がある:過去に起こったことという意味と過去に起こったことについて、私たちが現在までに採用するに至った解釈という意味である。In the first sense, history as past events is imagined as a country (stretched out 'behind' us)( which we could visit if only we had a time-travel machine).前者の意味において、過去の出来事としての歴史は、私たちの「うしろ」にあってはるか遠くまで伸びている国、タイムマシーンさえあれば飛んでいける国、のようなものと理解されている。 History as the surmises, interpretations and narratives (constructed today) is based on what those past events left for us ―it survives in the form of documents, letters, diaries, ruins (unearthed by the archaeologist), artefacts (known or judged to be old). (後者の)現在までに考えられてきた、推測や解釈や物語としての歴史は、そうした過去の出来事が私たちに残してくれたものからできあがっている。それは 文書、書簡、日記、(考古学者が発掘した)遺跡、(歴史的なものだと言い伝えられてきたか、そうした鑑定が出ている)遺物、のような形で残っている。These are the residue of what has otherwise gone; historians study and arrange them, like pieces of an incomplete jigsaw puzzle, in order to fashion a coherent story. これらは、滅んでしまったものが残した断片なのである。歴史家はこれら(断片)を使って、完成することのないジグソーパズルに挑戦しているのである。筋書きがしっかりとした物語の輪郭だけでもなぞりたいのだ。History, in the sense of past time, is accessible only through history in the sense of today's incomplete jigsaw puzzle; we can get at it in no other way. 歴史は、過ぎ去った過去のことであるから、今日の、完成することのないジグソーパズルとしての歴史を採用しないことには、歴史を語ることはできない。ほかに歴史を語る方法などないのだ。


Among the indispensable resources of the historian are contemporary accounts of past events written by witnesses. Of course these accounts have to be approached with scepticism; the historian must remember the human inclination to dramatize, enlarge a share or minimize a responsibility, write with bias, distort the facts whether deliberately or unconsciously, 'spin' the events or tell outright lies. Even so, first-hand reports are valuable and important. Without diaries and reports, memoirs, newspapers and other contemporary records, historians would have a very hard if not impossible time. This was what Thomas Carlyle had in mind when he defined history as 'a kind of distilled newspapers', though of course he thereby ignores the task of checking and interpretation that the historian uses to turn those records into an organized whole. Moreover a great deal of the raw material used by historians consists of other less interesting factual records, such as lists of names, account books, legal documents, and the like; a far cry from, say, diary entries and personal letters, reportage and memoir.

It is these latter accounts, though, that give the freshest and most vivid impression of the past, however much spin and bias they contain. The documentary raw material of history has the immediacy of presence, the directness that characterizes communication from someone who was there and felt and saw the things reported. Any policeman will tell you that four witnesses at the scene of an accident will give four different stories of what happened; so we must accept that every contemporary account is one person's account, filtered through subjectivity and the often unreliable channel of memory. Nevertheless it is impossible not to be gripped, absorbed and often moved by letters, diaries and court records. It is a quite different experience from reading novelized versions of the events, and even historical accounts of them. The consciousness that the writer was there makes a big difference. If, as you read, you recall the cynical view of Santayana that 'history is a pack of lies about events that never happened told by people who weren't there', you might not be able to resist a smile. He meant today's historians writing about the past; but the same applies to the creators of their resources. Some letters and diaries might indeed be a pack of lies, and their authors might not really have been where they claimed to have been -but it is reasonable to suppose that most are the authors' version of the truth. And the fact that they were written close to the described events makes them compelling.

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