英文解釈演習:2001京大 その2



There is no point in philosophy unless it helps dispel mental sufferings. Originally the philosopher's role was like that of today's psychiatrist – to provide answers to how we are to live. In fact, modern psychiatry, whether it knows it or not, is carrying out some of the great philosophers' most fundamental beliefs.

Consider Epicurus. Here was a man prepared to confront the question, what does it take to make a man happy? His answer includes: friendship; freedom; a willingness to analyze and reduce anxieties about such things as death, illness, and money. The capacity of money to deliver happiness, he insisted, is present in small salaries but will not rise with the largest. (1)A recently published book by an eminent sociologist describes a number of studies which have indeed shown that once a person's income is above the poverty level, an increasingly larger one contributes next to nothing to happiness. Quite the reverse happens: as wealth accumulates, family solidarity and community bonding disintegrate.


(2)Seneca* can be referred to for advice on coping with hardships, and actually he has much to say of relevance to such contemporary stupidities as violence observed in some soccer fans. He sees anger as a kind of madness, given that what makes us angrY tends to be the frustration of dangerously optimistic ideas about the world and other people. In this modern world of affluence, effective medicine, and a political system devoted to shepherding us safely from the cradle to the grave, we do not anticipate evils before they arrive. The wise man always considers what can happen, and because we are injured most by what we do not expect we must expect everything to happen. Socrates also offered this advice: "If you wish to put off all worry, assume that what you fear may happen is certainly going to happen."

Men are seduced by the trappings of wealth, power, status, and possessions, but the secret of a fulfilled and satisfied life is the wisdom to know what will truly make us happy.(3)Montaigne** believ
ed in the superiority of wisdom―knowing what helps us live happily and morallyover mere learning. Education that makes us learned but fails to make us wise is, in his scheme of life, quite simply absurd. Would that he were living at this hour.
*Seneca セネカ 古代ローマの思想家
**Montaigne モンテーニュ 16世紀フランスの思想家


(2) Seneca* can be referred to for advice on coping with hardships,
困難に直面したとき、アドバイスを得たいというのなら、{セネカが参照されて良い}セネカの著作を読めばいい。
and actually he has much to say of relevance to such contemporary stupidities as violence observed in some soccer fans.
そして、実際、彼は、著書の中で、一部のサッカーファンに見られる暴力行為のような、現代人の愚行にもあてはまることをたくさん述べている。
*to say much of relevance to~~に関連することをたくさん言う(much
が前に出た)

<ここから、難しくなる>
→He sees anger as a kind of madness, given that what makes us angry tends to be the frustration of dangerously optimistic ideas about the world and other people.
怒りは一種の狂気だと彼は考える、もし私たちを怒らせるものが、ほとんどの場合、世界や他人について恐ろしく楽観的な見方しかできないことに対する失望であるとすれば。
*see A as B
*given that ~と仮定すれば、
*tend to~ する傾向にある、~しがちである
  
解釈します:《怒りの感情は、(世界や他者に何が起こるかを予測する能力があまりにも欠如している)人間が、現実を突きつけられたときに感じる絶望感からやってくる、ある種の狂気である、と彼は考えている。》


【です・ます調で記述したよ】
In this modern world of affluence, effective medicine, and a political system devoted to shepherding us safely from the cradle to the grave, we do not anticipate evils before they arrive.
物があふれ、医療体制が整い、私たちをゆりかごから墓場まで{安全に導いててくれる}安心して過ごさせてくれる政治体制を持つ、この現代世界では、{私たちは不幸がやってくる前に不幸を予期しない}これから不幸がやってくるとは考えません。
The wise man always considers what can happen, and because we are injured most by what we do not expect we must expect everything to happen.
賢人は これから起こることに思いを巡らすものです。ですから、(幸福でありたいと思うなら、賢くなって)私たちも起りそうなことはどんなことでも{予期し}考えなければならないのです。なぜなら、私たちはたいてい{予期して}考えても見なかったことが起きて不幸になるわけですから。
Socrates also offered this advice: "If you wish to put off all worry, assume that what you fear may happen is certainly going to happen."
ソクラテスはこんな忠告もしています。「あらゆる心配事から解放されたかったら、あなたが恐れていることはかならず起きるものだと思いなさい」と。
Men are seduced by the trappings of wealth, power, status, and possessions,
贅沢な暮らし、権力、地位、資産のようなものでうわべを飾ると、人は堕落するのです。
but the secret of a fulfilled and satisfied life is the wisdom to know what will truly make us happy.
でも、とても満ち足りた人生への扉を開く鍵はあります。知性です。知性だけが、私たちが本当に幸せになるために必要なものを教えてくれるのです。
(3)Montaigne** believed in the superiority of wisdom―knowing what helps us live happily and morally over mere learning.
モンテーニュは、私たちが幸せに、道徳的に暮らすことができるためには何が必要かを知ること、すなわち、{知性の優越性}まず知性が一番重要であると考えました。
Education that makes us learned but fails to make us wise is, in his scheme of life, quite simply absurd. Would that he were living at this hour.
教育は私たちに知識を与えてはくれますが、知性は与えてくれません。教育は、彼の人生哲学にとって、全くくだらないものだったのです。彼が今ここにいてくれればと思わずにはいられません


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