高2英語入試問題演習


高2英語演習は、11月から
「入試問題演習」を開始しました。

早稲田大学人間科学(2016年) 
1番は (ⅰ)から(ⅶ)までの7つのパートから構成されており、
本文のみの総単語数は1712語にもなる。

( i )
  The journey of growing up was once personal; now it is so public. Today teenagers' sense of self is being defined by what they see on YouTube and Facebook and how they present themselves on social networking sites. How can parents keep their teenagers safe and raise them to be successful, caring, and productive adults in the face of technology's grip? Susan Morris Shaffer, president of an educational nonprofit, and Linda Perlman Gordon, a psychotherapist, authors of "How to Connect with Your "Teen," explain how parents can negotiate the teen world that seems apart from theirs.
"Today, the media has an unprecedented influence on teenage development. Teens spend much of their day juggling between various forms of media, often at the same time. A new nationwide survey from Pew Research reveals that 24% of teens ages 13-17 say they are online 'almost constantly,' and 92% go online daily. It 's up to parents to provide an anchor to counter the barrage of information and manipulation by helping their teens develop critical thinking skills."
"Parents must be tech savvy in order to become familiar with the places their teens go online. Think of social media as a virtual playground that requires the same scrutiny as any other place your child may visit. Parents should engage their teen in conversation about the lack of filters and boundaries in cyberspace. Teen postings are public and have an infinite lifespan. Remind teens that any posting can have unintended consequences, something teens don't often foresee."

(ⅱ)
  At first glance (or click), spending your time on social media websites can seem like a dream if you aren't confident in your social skills. You don't really have to deal with people directly, you have all the time you need to say what you think someone else would like to read, and if you are feeling uncomfortable, you can simply log off.
ちょっとのぞいてみれば(あるいはクリックしてみれば)、ウエッブサイトで時間をつぶすのは、まるで夢のように思えるはずだ。君が人付き合いが苦手だという条件付きだがね。君は他人と直接かかわらなくてもいいし、君にはいっぱい時間があるから、他のだれかが気になるような話を思いつくままに書き込めばいい。そして、煩わしくなったら、ただ端末を切るだけでいい。
  What is really going on with social media is that you are comparing your life to just what is shown to you, and most people only want to show the good stuff. So if you are reading all the positives (and some may be made up), it can end up making you feel that you have no life, because all your "friends" are posting pics from their vacations, their dinners, and their projects.
ソーシャルメディア上で実際に起こっていることは、君が、ただ他人が見せてくれるもの=人生と、自分の人生を、比較しているということだけだ。そして、たいていの人はよいことを見せたがっているということだけだ。だから、君はリアジュウなこと(でっち上げも含まれる)ばかりを読んでいるわけで、結局、自分には全然(あんなに素敵な)人生がないように感じさせられてしまう。君の(ウエッブ上の)「友人たち」はみな、休暇とか、豪華な夕食とか、自分たちの特別な日とか、の写真をアップしているからだ。
  Sure you can join them, but do you really want to live vicariously through others, or do you want to experience the joy of living your own life? The truth here is that hiding behind a computer, talking with people you often don't even know, is not ultimately very fulfilling. You have to bring things and people into your life, not just read about them or "like" what they have to say.
もちろん、君だって、彼らの中に加わることもできるが、でも本当に彼らみたいに、vicariouslyに生きたいのかい。それとも、自分自身の人生を生きることの楽しさを味わいたいのかい。ネットにある真実は、コンピュータを使って、知りもしない人たちと頻繁にチャットしても、最終的にはあまり満たされないということだ。君は、物事や人間を自分の人生にたぐりよせなくてはならないんだ。彼らについて読んだり、彼らが言わなくてはならないこと=嘘に「いいね」をクリックしているようじゃだめだ。

(iii)
  Only purebred dogs are allowed to compete at the Westminster Kennel Club's annual dog show. "The basic purpose of dog shows is to facilitate the evaluation of breeding stock for use in producing the next generations," the organization's website says. Judges choose winners based on how closely a dog fits a standard, or "ideal breed." Standards are based on both personality traits and physical ones - from eye color to ear shape and even tail placement. Mutts need not apply.
It is competitions like these that contribute to the common perception that mixing animal species leads to "maladapted" animals, according to Michael Arnold, a professor of genetics at the University of Georgia. But closer analysis of genetics suggests that perception is far from settled. What is clear is that global warming is increasing many opportunities for gene mixing. "As we've developed genomic methodologies, we're finding that organisms are exchanging genes with other species," Arnold said. "Genetic exchange due to organisms coming together from climate change is the rule rather than the
exception."
Animals have been interbreeding for millennia. Even modem humans are the product of genetic exchange with Neanderthals some 60,000 years ago. But the rate at which species interbreed is accelerating because of climate change, researchers say. As habitats and animal ranges change and bleed into one another, species that never before would have encountered one another are now mating. Warmer temperatures have allowed grizzly bears and polar bears to venture to habitats they don't
usually occupy and mate to form a hybrid: the pizzly or grolar bear.

( iv )
Researchers at Stanford University recently set out to explore the neural basis of creativity and came up with surprising findings. Their study, published in Scientific Reports, suggests the cerebellum, the brain region typically associated with movement, is involved in creativity. If so, the discovery could change our understanding of the neurological mechanisms behind some thought processes. Three and a half years ago, Grace Hawthorne, an associate professor of design at Stanford University Institute of Design, known as the "d.school," approached Allan Reiss, a behavioral scientist at Stanford's School of Medicine. Hawthorne wanted to find a way to objectively measure whether or not her design class enhanced students' creativity and Reiss, inspired by the game Pictionary, developed an experiment.
スタンフォード大学の研究者たちは最近、創造カの神経的な原理に関する研究に着手し、驚くべき発見に到達した。彼らの研究は、サイエンテイフイツク・レポート誌に発表されているが、the cerebellum、つまり、一般的に運動と関連づけられている脳の部位が、創造カにかかわっていることを示唆している。そうであれば、その発見は、我々のいくつかの思考プロセスの背後にある、神経学的なメカニズムの理解を変えることができるかもしれない。3年半前、スタンフォード大学デザイン学部(dスクールとして知られている)のグレイス・ホーソーン准教授は、スタンフォード大学医学部の行動学科学者、アラン・リースに連絡を取った。ホーソーンは、自分のデザインのクラスが生徒たちの創造カを向上させているかを客観的に測定する方法を見つけたいと思っていたが、「ピクショナリー」というゲームにヒントを得たリースは、ある実験を思いついた。
Participants in the study were placed into a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine (fMRI) with a nonmagnetic tablet and asked to draw a series of pictures based on action words (for example, vote, exhaust, salute) with 30 seconds for each word. The participants later ranked each word picture based on its difficulty to draw. The tablet transmitted the drawings to researchers at the d.school who scored them on a 5-point scale of creativity, and researchers at the School of Medicine analyzed the fMRI scans for brain activity patterns.
研究の参加者は、磁気に反応しないタブレットを持って, fMRIの中に入れられ, 一連の動詞(例えば、vote, exhaust, saluteするなど)を元に、一連の絵を各単語につき30秒で描くように求められた。参加者はそのあと各単語に対応する絵の描きにくさに基づいて各単語に対応する絵の順位をつけた。描いた絵はタブレットから、dスクールの研究者たちに送られ、彼らはそれらを創造カで5段階評価で、得点をつけた。その後、医学部の研究者らが、fMRIのスキャン画像を分析して脳の活動パターンを探した。
  The results were surpnsmg: The prefrontal cortex, traditionally associated with thinking, was most active for the drawings the participants ranked as most difficult; the cerebellum was most active for the drawings the participants scored highest on for creativity.
結果は驚くべきものだった;前頭葉は、(伝統的に思考に結びつけられているのだが、)参加者たちが最も難しかったと評価した絵のときに最も活性化していた;the cerebellumは最も活性化していた、参加者たちが創造力で最も高い得点を取った絵のときに。

( v )
After nearly a century of research, scientists in Switzerland - of course - have finally discovered why Swiss cheese has holes, and it has nothing to do with hungry mice. Rather, it's tiny flecks of hay that fall into the milk during production that give Swiss cheese its distinctive appearance, according to experts from Agroscope, a governmental agriculture research group.
In 1917, American William Clark became the first scientist to systematically study the on gm of Swiss cheese's holes, and he published a detailed paper in the Journal of Dairy Science. He concluded that carbon dioxide burps from microscopic bacteria were floating in the milk. Still, Clark couldn't provide an exact description of the bubble-forming mechanism, and ever since he published his landmark study, myriad researchers around the world have attempted to pin down the origin of Swiss cheese's holes.
But in a report released Thursday, experts at Agroscope believe they've solved this vexing scientific riddle. Scientists took multiple CT scans of Swiss cheese as it developed over 130 days to track where and how holes formed. They found that altering the number of hay particles in milk used to make cheese allowed them to control the number of holes that appeared. Their findings also explain why, over the past 10 to 15 years, Swiss cheese in the stores has fewer and fewer holes. Today, milk is filtered through modem-day milking machines, and it isn't exposed to the barn's open environment, so hay particles don't get a chance to settle in the milk and form holes.

(vi)
The word dinosaur may mean "terrible lizard" in Greek, but these creatures may have had a lot more in common with warm-blooded animals than their cold-blooded name implies. Paleontologist Michael D'Emic, in a new study, says he's found evidence in dinosaur bones that indicates these ancient creatures were fully warm-blooded. D'Emic arrived at this conclusion after reexamining findings from a widely publicized 2014 study that concluded dinosaurs were neither cold- nor warm-blooded, but a hybrid of both categories.
In the 2014 study, published in Science, researchers evaluated the metabolism of 21 dinosaur species by building a formula based on dinosaurs' body mass (indicated by the size of thigh bones) and growth rates (indicated by rings in fossils ). Growth rings, like tree rings, demarcate periods of arrested growth, while the spaces between rings indicate periods of rapid growth. Researchers then used these rings to estimate different dinosaur species' daily growth rates, and compared their findings to modernday
warm-blooded animals. They concluded that dinosaur growth rates weren't characteristic of either warm- or cold-blooded animals, and were instead most similar to mesotherms- animals that can regulate body temperature, but their internal temperature doesn't remain fixed. Only a few existing species are mesotherms, including some sharks and turtles.
But researchers' daily growth rate formula assumed dinosaurs grew at a constant rate each year. However, D'Emic points out that dinosaurs probably grew sporadically, packing on the pounds during brief wet periods when food was abundant, and halting their growth during dry periods, for example. The space between growth rings may represent only a few months, rather than an entire year as the 2014 study indicated, D'Emic claims.

(vii)
Researchers from Stanford University have built an aluminum-ion battery prototype, and it's a glimmer of hope for every thumb-pounding smartphone addict. The battery can fully charge in about one minute, hold a charge longer than conventional batteries and is safer than lithium-ion batteries. Aluminum is an attractive metal for batteries due to its low cost and high charge capacity, but attempts to build an aluminum battery over the past 30 years have largely failed. Past aluminum battery iterations didn't pack enough juice to power devices, had extremely short life cycles and were susceptible to deterioration. Finding the right combination of materials to produce sufficient voltage after repeated recharge cycles has, to this point, eluded researchers.
However, the team at Stanford cleared these hurdles by using graphite for the battery's cathode, the place where current leaves the battery, and aluminum for the anode, the place where current flows into the battery. The researchers placed their aluminum anode and graphite cathode, along with an ionic liquid electrolyte, into a flexible polymer pouch. The combination yielded a high performing, cheap battery.
The aluminum battery can produce about two volts of electricity and can be recharged more than 7,500 times without any decay in its total capacity. For comparison, other experimental aluminum batteries died after 100 charges, and the conventional lithium-ion battery lasts about 1 ,000 cycles.

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